Section 45 Reference Rates

Year

Source

Reference Rate

Credit

Adj. Factor

2018Wind4.85 cents/kWhN/A1.5792
 Refined Coal$7.03/tonN/A1.6072
 Closed-Loop BiomassN/AN/A1.5792
 Open-Looped BiomassN/AN/A1.5792
 GeothermalN/AN/A1.5792
 SolarN/AN/A1.5792
 Small IrrigationN/AN/A1.5792
 Municipal Solid WasteN/AN/A1.5792
 Qualified HydropowerN/AN/A1.5792
 Indian CoalN/AN/AN/A
 Steel Industry FuelN/AN/AN/A

Year

Source

Reference Rate

Credit 

Adj. Factor

2017Wind4.55 cents/kWhN/A1.5792
 Refined Coal$51.09/tonN/A1.5792
 Closed-Loop BiomassN/AN/A1.5792
 Open-Looped BiomassN/AN/A1.5792
 GeothermalN/AN/A1.5792
 SolarN/AN/A1.5792
 Small IrrigationN/AN/A1.5792
 Municipal Solid WasteN/AN/A1.5792
 Qualified HydropowerN/AN/A1.5792
 Indian CoalN/AN/AN/A
 Steel Industry FuelN/AN/AN/A

Year

Source

Reference Rate

Credit 

Adj. Factor

2016Wind4.50 cents/kWh2.3 cents/kWh1.5556
 Refined Coal$53.74/ton6.810/ton1.5556
 Closed-Loop BiomassN/A2.3 cents/kWh1.5556
 Open-Looped BiomassN/A1.2 cents/kWh1.5556
 GeothermalN/A2.3 cents/kWh1.5556
 SolarN/A2.3 cents/kWh1.5556
 Small IrrigationN/A1.2 cents/kWh1.5556
 Municipal Solid WasteN/A1.2 cents/kWh1.5556
 Qualified HydropowerN/A1.2 cents/kWh1.5556
 Indian CoalN/A2.387/tonN/A
 Steel Industry FuelN/AN/AN/A

Year

Source

Reference Rate

Credit 

Adj. Factor

2015Wind4.50 cents/kWh2.3 cents/kWh1.5336
 Refined Coal$57.64/ton6.710/ton1.5336
 Closed-Loop BiomassN/A2.3 cents/kWh1.5336
 Open-Loop BiomassN/A1.2 cents/kWh1.5336
 GeothermalN/A2.3 cents/kWh1.5336
 SolarN/A2.3 cents/kWh1.5336
 Small IrrigationN/A1.2 cents/kWh1.5336
 Municipal Solid WasteN/A1.2 cents/kWh1.5336
 Qualified HydropowerN/A1.2 cents/kWh1.5336
 Indian CoalN/AN/AN/A
 Steel Industry FuelN/AN/AN/A
     

Year

Source

Reference Rate

Credit 

Adj. Factor

2014Wind4.85 cents/kWh2.3 cents/kWh1.5063
 Refined Coal$56.88/ton6.601/ton1.5063
 Closed-Loop BiomassN/A2.3 cents/kWh1.5063
 Open-Loop BiomassN/A1.1 cents/kWh1.5063
 GeothermalN/A2.3 cents/kWh1.5063
 SolarN/A2.3 cents/kWh1.5063
 Small IrrigationN/A1.1 cents/kWh1.5063
 Municipal Solid WasteN/A1.1 cents/kWh1.5063
 Qualified HydropowerN/A1.1 cents/kWh1.5063
 Indian CoalN/A2.317/ton1.1587
 Steel Industry FuelN/AN/AN/A
     

Year

Source

Reference Rate

Credit 

Adj. Factor

2013Wind4.53 cents/kWh2.3 cents/kWh1.5063
 Refined Coal$58.23/ton$6.590/ton1.5063
 Closed-Loop BiomassN/A2.3 cents/kWh1.5063
 Open-Loop BiomassN/A1.1 cents/kWh1.5063
 GeothermalN/A2.3 cents/kWh1.5063
 SolarN/A2.3 cents/kWh1.5063
 Small IrrigationN/A1.1 cents/kWh1.5063
 Municipal Solid WasteN/A1.1 cents/kWh1.5063
 Qualified HydropowerN/A1.1 cents/kWh1.5063
 Indian CoalN/A2.308/ton1.1538
 Steel Industry FuelN/AN/AN/A
     

Year

Source

Reference Rate

Credit 

Adj. Factor

2012

Wind5.31 cents/kWh2.2 cents/kWh1.4799
 Refined Coal$55.80/ton$6.475/ton1.4799
 Closed-Loop BiomassN/A2.2 cents/kWh1.4799
 Open-Loop BiomassN/A1.1 cent/kWh1.4799
 GeothermalN/A2.2 cents/kWh1.4799
 SolarN/A2.2 cents/kWh1.4799
 Small IrrigationN/A1.1 cent/kWh1.4799
 Municipal Solid WasteN/A1.1 cent/kWh1.4799
 Qualified HydropowerN/A1.1 cent/kWh1.4799
 Indian CoalN/A$2.267/ton1.1336
 Steel Industry FuelN/AN/AN/A
     

Year

Source

Reference Rate

Credit

Adj. Factor

2011

Wind4.68 cents/kWh2.2 cents/kWh1.4459
 Refined Coal$55.66/ton$6.33/ton1.4459
 Closed-Loop BiomassN/A2.2 cents/kWh1.4459
 Open-Loop BiomassN/A1.1 cent/kWh1.4459
 GeothermalN/A2.2 cents/kWh1.4459
 SolarN/A2.2 cents/kWh1.4459
 Small IrrigationN/A1.1 cent/kWh1.4459
 Municipal Solid WasteN/A1.1 cent/kWh1.4459
 Qualified HydropowerN/A1.1 cent/kWh1.4459
 Indian CoalN/A$2.2/ton1.1066
 Steel Industry FuelN/A$2.89/barrelN/A
     

Year

Source

Reference Rate

Credit

Adj. Factor

2010

2010 Correction

Wind4.22 cents/kWh2.2 cents/kWh1.4342
 Refined Coal$54.74/ton$6.27/ton1.4342
 Closed-Loop BiomassN/A2.2 cents/kWh1.4342
 Open-Loop BiomassN/A1.1 cent/kWh1.4342
 GeothermalN/A2.2 cents/kWh1.4342
 SolarN/A2.2 cents/kWh1.4342
 Small IrrigationN/A1.1 cent/kWh1.4342
 Municipal Solid WasteN/A1.1 cent/kWh1.4342
 Qualified HydropowerN/A1.1 cent/kWh1.4342
 Indian CoalN/A$2.2/ton1.0976
 Steel Industry FuelN/A$2.87/barrelN/A
     

Year

Source

Reference Rate

Credit 

Adj. Factor

2009Wind4.32 cents/kWh2.1 cents/kWh1.4171
 Refined Coal$39.72/ton$6.20/ton1.4171
 Closed-Loop BiomassN/A2.1 cents/kWh1.4171
 Open-Loop BiomassN/A1.1 cent/kWh1.4171
 GeothermalN/A2.1 cents/kWh1.4171
 SolarN/A2.1 cents/kWh1.4171
 Small IrrigationN/A1 cent/kWh1.4171
 Municipal Solid WasteN/A1 cent/kWh1.4171
 Qualified HydropowerN/A1 cent/kWh1.4171
 Indian CoalN/A$1.625/ton1.0830
 Steel Industry FuelN/A$2/barrelN/A
     

Year

Source

Reference Rate

Credit 

Adj. Factor

2008Wind3.6 cents/kWh2.1 cents/kWh1.3854
 Refined Coal$45.56/ton$6.061/ton1.3854
 Closed-Loop BiomassN/A2.1 cents/kWh1.3854
 Open-Loop BiomassN/A1 cent/kWh1.3854
 GeothermalN/A2.1 cents/kWh1.3854
 SolarN/A2.1 cents/kWh1.3854
 Small IrrigationN/A1 cent/kWh1.3854
 Municipal Solid WasteN/A1 cent/kWh1.3854
 Qualified HydropowerN/A1 cent/kWh1.3854
 Indian CoalN/A$1.589/ton1.0591
     

Year

Source

Reference Rate

Credit 

Adj. Factor

2007Wind3.29 cents/kWh2 cents/kWh1.3433
 Refined Coal$48.35/ton$5.877/ton1.3433
 Closed-Loop BiomassN/A2 cents/kWh1.3433
 Open-Loop BiomassN/A1 cent/kWh1.3433
 GeothermalN/A2 cents/kWh1.3433
 SolarN/A2 cents/kWh1.3433
 Small IrrigationN/A1 cent/kWh1.3433
 Municipal Solid WasteN/A1 cent/kWh1.3433
 Qualified HydropowerN/A1 cent/kWh1.3433
 Indian CoalN/A$1.544/ton1.0293
     

Year

Source

Reference Rate

Credit 

Adj. Factor

2006Wind2.89 cents/kWh1.9 cents/kWh1.2981
 Refined Coal$42.78/ton$5.679/ton1.2981
 Closed-Loop BiomassN/A1.9 cents/kWh1.2981
 Open-Loop BiomassN/A1 cent/kWh1.2981
 GeothermalN/A1.9 cents/kWh1.2981
 SolarN/A1.9 cents/kWh1.2981
 Small IrrigationN/A1 cent/kWh1.2981
 Municipal Solid WasteN/A1 cent/kWh1.2981
 Qualified HydropowerN/A1 cent/kWh1.2981
     

Year

Source

Reference Rate

Credit 

Adj. Factor

2005Wind4.85 cents/kWh1.9 cents/kWh1.2528
 Refined Coal$36.36/ton$5.481/ton1.2528
 Closed-Loop BiomassN/A1.9 cents/kWh1.2528
 Open-Loop BiomassN/A0.9 cents/kWh1.2528
 GeothermalN/A1.9 cents/kWh1.2528
 SolarN/A1.9 cents/kWh1.2528
 Small IrrigationN/A0.9 cents/kWh1.2528
 Municipal Solid WasteN/A0.9 cents/kWh1.2528
 Qualified HydropowerN/A0.9 cents/kWh1.2528